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| Last Updated:: 19/02/2022



Karnataka is divided in ten agro-climatic zones, taking into consideration the rainfall pattern, soil types, texture, depth and physio-chemical properties, elevation, topography, major crops and the type of vegetation. The contribution of Agriculture sector to the overall GSDP saw an increase from 12.16% to 13.15% in 2020-21 against 2019-20.1 About 30% of the total workers in the state are still engaged in agricultural and allied sector activities (Census 2011) which accounts for approximately 8.73 per cent of the Karnataka's Gross State Value Added (GSVA) for the year 2019-20 (at constant prices).

Karnataka is the Coffee Capital of India producing 70% of India's output. Karnataka is the leader in horticulture and floriculture business. The state is the largest exporter of Gherkins and Flowers in the country. Karnataka is the largest producer of coffee, raw silk, sandalwood, ragi (finger millet), sunflower, tomato and India’s second largest producer of maize, safflower, grapes, pomegranate and onions. The state ranks fifth in India in terms of total area under horticulture. It stands fifth in production of vegetable crops and third in fruit crop production. It is also the largest producer of spices, aromatic and medicinal crops and tropical fruits. It is the second largest milk-producing state after Gujarat.

The state mainly follows a rice-based cropping pattern. Major crop alternatives to rice are ragi, bajra, cotton, groundnut, jowar and maize. Other important crops are wheat and minor millets and pulses like tur, Bengal gram, horse gram, black gram, green gram, cowpea etc. Oilseeds include groundnut, sesame, sunflower, soybean and sunflower. Commercial crops include sugarcane in the eastern region, cotton in the north-western region and tobacco. Cashew, coconut, areca nut (southern region), cardamom, and chillies are other important crops. The Western Ghats are well known for coffee and tea plantations while maize is grown mainly in the northern region of the state. Due to its climate, the coastal region is favourable for the cultivation of fruit orchards. 

Agriculture at Glance


Agriculture   1990-91  2000-01  2010-11  2016-17 2017-18  2018-19
Net Area Sown '000 Ha. 10381 10410 10523 9855 9895 10664
Gross Cropped Area '000 Ha. 11759 12284 13062 11779 11994 13551
Gross Irrigated Area '000 Ha. 2598 3271 4279 3548 3639 4745
Gross Irrigated Area to Gross Cropped Area % 22.09 26.63 32.76 30.12 30.34 35.01


Types of Soil in Karnataka


Black soil the surface In texture soil vary from loam to clays. Generally they are neutral to alkaline in reaction, calcareous and well supplied with bases such as Ca, Mg, k..Black soil are know to get self ploughed due to their swelling and shrinking properties with change in their moisture content. District are belgam, bijapur,gulbarga and bidhar also part of raichur chitradurga and ballary
Laterite soil Laterite soil are in the advanced stage of weathering highly leached,poor in bases and very acidic in reaction.The moisture retentivity of the soil is very poor and they become hard during summer month.soil contain adequte quntities of organic matter. Malnad  and coastal area of U.K ,D.K and part of dharwad ,chikmaglur, hassan
Red and red loamy soil They are light textured from sandy or graveely to loams with poor aggregating ability.The soil are poor in bases and acidic to neutral in reaction. Shimoga ,chikmagalur, hassan mysoreand coorg.
Coastal alluvials The surface soil is generally grey ,yellow or light brow ,the intencity of the coloure increases with depth .the soil are acidic in nature ,low in cation exchange capacity and bases. D.K,U.K
Dark brown clayey soil They are clayey ,low bases,rich in organic matter ,as the surface soil receive the decomposition product of the virgin forest D.K,U.K coorge ,mysore
Mixed red and black soil Black soil seen in the low land and valleys ,have properties resembling those of medium black soil.soil are productive under good managemanent practieces. Belgaum ,bijapur ,dharwad , raichur  bellary and chitradurg.



Economic Survey Report 2020- 2021. Directorate of Economic and Statistics, Karnataka